What are the specific predictions of the impact theory? Tihomir June 16, at 2: What fraction of the mass of the Universe do we currently think is in baryons? Their Figure 7 provides a nice visual comparison between observed galaxy distributions and the results of the various simulated universes.
These two elements were the dominant components of the earliest stars. However, Hot Dark Matter often gets grouped together with radiation since, as the particles are moving very close to the speed of light, they have essentially the same equation of state.
Spectral June 14, at 7: Einstein found that if he dropped that assumption, an additional free parameter appeared in the equations of GR. Each form of H is thus an isotope of that element having an atomic mass that is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
Thus, if we know the density of a given component, then we know its pressure via the equation of state and can calculate how it will affect the geometry of the universe now and at any time in the past or future.
Obviously, the exact pattern of these temperature variations does not tell us anything in particular. The scale factor is the ratio between the current "size" of the universe and the size of the universe at some point in the past or future "size" being defined as is appropriate for a given curvature.
What positions did Curtis take? Protons and Protons and neutrons form The leftover particles begin to form protons and neutrons, the pieces that make up the centers of atoms.
Seems unlikely, but it is in fact possible. This meant that any inhomogeneities arising essentially from quantum fluctuations in the dark matter distribution would quickly start to collapse and form the basis for later development of large scale structure the seeds of these inhomogeneities were laid down during inflation, but we will ignore that for the current discussion.
On small scales, there is still some disagreement, however see below for a more detailed discussion. What are some of the reasons we think that impacts are common in the Solar System?
More detail about the discovery is available here. The present The present The universe as it is today is full of stars, galaxies, and planets.
Hence, by looking at stars and gas clouds very far away, one can observe them at a time when the heavy element abundance was much lower.
This makes the universe a perfect absorber; no photons could leave the universe, so they would put the whole universe or at least that part that was causally connected in thermal equilibrium. For most true quasars, the amount of energy released during this process is a few orders of magnitude larger than all of the light emitted by the rest of the galaxy.
Since the light from these galaxies was emitted in the past, we would expect that the temperature of the CMBR at that time was correspondingly higher.
The discrepancy is a factor of 2. This was a major confirmation of not only the Lambda CDM version of BBT, but also the basic picture of how the cosmos transitioned from an early radiation-dominated, plasma-filled universe to the matter-dominated universe where most of the large scale structure we see today began to form.
This was before the supernovae results were released, putting the lie to the claim that, prior to the supernovae data, the possibility that the cosmological constant was non-zero was ignored in the cosmological literature.
The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: Therefore, if we want to make any predictions about how the universe changes over time, we need to have an idea of what types of matter and energy are present in the universe.
More collisions, at least the ones that stick, cause heavier elements such as D, 3H and He to form. What are some of the weaknesses of the impact theory?
This meta-stable point is beyond the Earth's orbital path around the Sun, roughly one tenth as far as the Earth is from the Sun. As noted above, in the standard picture of BBN, all of the light element abundances depend on the amount of ordinary matter baryons relative to radiation photons.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. This fluid would fall into the gravitational potential wells set up by dark matter which does not interact with photons until the pressure in the fluid would counteract the gravitational pull and the fluid would expand.
Taking these errors margins into account, this is again nicely consistent with the age of the universe determined by WMAP. By using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagramastronomers can get a estimate of when the stars in a globular cluster or other star cluster formed.
As one would expect, the morphology of the few nearby galaxies in these images is quite a bit different from the very high redshift galaxies. If one assumes that all of the universe consists of protons and neutrons, the density of the universe is such that much of the currently observed deuterium would have been burned into helium To do this, we measure what is known as the angular power spectrum of the CMBR.
One can insert a hypothetical particle such as a massive neutrino and see what has to happen before BBN predicts abundances that are very different from observations.
In other words, even "empty" space still contains energy and therefore does not have to be flat. How did Edwin Hubble help to resolve the debate? What is the significance of Chicxulub? What are impact markers spherules, shocked quartz, tektites and their significance?A detailed description of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) can be found at Ned Wright's website, including the relevant nuclear reactions, plots and references.
For. Big Bang nucleosynthesis begins about one minute after the Big Bang, when the universe has cooled enough to form stable protons and neutrons, after baryogenesis. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis The Universe's light-element abundance is another important criterion by which the Big Bang hypothesis is verified.
It is now known that the elements observed in the Universe were created in either of two ways. The Big Bang is the dominant (and highly supported) theory of the origin of the universe. In essence, this theory states that the universe began from an initial point or singularity which has expanded over billions of years to form the universe as we now know it.
The modeling of the early universe by the standard big bang model gives a scenario that involves twelve nuclear interactions that led to the present cosmic abundances of elements outside the stars.
The vast majority of the mass of ordinary matter in the universe is hydrogen and helium, remaining. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis The emergence of elements in the universe Benjamin Topper Abstract.
In this paper, I will first give a brief overview of .Download